The transhumant Fulani immigrants from the Sahelo-Sudanian regions in northern Côte d’Ivoire have kept the main characteristics of their livestock farming system, while engaging in agriculture. If mobility is essential for the good health of zebu or mestizo (bullfighter-zebu) livestock in humid regions, it is because it is all a matter of degree: livestock health and feed are optimised by the movements that create very fine variations sometimes.
The immigration of Fulani pastoralists in northern Côte d’Ivoire dates back to colonial times, when various crises and the modification of rangelands due to agricultural development in the Sahelo-Sudanian regions caused some families to move southwards; the drought years later amplified these flows. Côte d’Ivoire has shouldered political responsibility for the settlement of herders and their livestock since the early 1970s through considerable investments in infrastructure and health monitoring at that time.
The transhumant population in northern Côte d’Ivoire represents at most 400,000 people, but their contribution to the national economy is far beyond this modest figure. The one million animals in the transhumant herd, or one-third of the national cattle herd in 2018, provide more than half of Côte d’Ivoire’s beef; farmers get from the Fulani herders the harnessed crop oxen they use on more than two-thirds of the cotton fields.
Transhumant herders still hold a monopoly on artisanal dairy production. Finally, the fields they cultivate benefit from free and effective organic manure that significantly improves yields.
Currently, transhumance in Côte d’Ivoire involves nearly 70 to 90% of the cattle herd, and 30 to 40% of small ruminants (sheep and goats) from Sahelian countries, in Côte d’Ivoire, on the one hand, and almost the entire national herd migrating from the north to the south of the country, on the other hand.
While their economic contribution is well recognised, their status is periodically called into question in some villages as well as in livestock development programmes. Behind the grievances against the Fulanis — often regarded as foreigners and wanderers, despite the fact that they have been in the country for over thirty years – there is the difficulty of making room for transhumant livestock farming as a production system which is also a particular way of life.
To date, the constraints faced by transhumant herders seem to stem less from a crisis in their production system than from a questioning of their links with their local and national economic environment.
KEY PREDIP ACTIVITIES IN CÔTE D’IVOIRE
Status of projected infrastructures/facilities
|N°||Types of infrastructures||Indicators||Quantity||Location|
|1||Securing livestock tracks||Track length||500 km||In the process of identification
Regions: Folon/ Kabadougou/ Bagoué/ Poro/ Tchologo/ Bounkani
|2||Development of resting /grazing areas||Number of resting /grazing areas||2||* Warigué/ Krouta
|3||Provision of water points||Number of water points||6||* Folon Region / Tienko
* In the process of identification
|4||Construction of livestock markets||Number of livestock markets||1||* Bounkani Region / municipality of Doropo|
|5||Construction of loading docks||Number of loading docks||7||* Tchologo Region / Municipality of Kong –
* Kabadougou Region / Municipality of Odiénné
* In the process of identification
|6||Establishment of livestock feeds||Livestock feed quantities||200 metric tonnes|
|7||Construction of warehouses||Number of warehouses||1||* Tchologo Region/ Yarabélé|
Status of planned soft activities
|N°||Types of activities||Indicators||Quantity|
|1||Facilitator Training||Number of facilitators trained||20|
|2||Facilitation of informed debates||Number of debates||9|
|3||Organisation of accompanied debates||Number of accompanied debates||4|
|4||Map production||Number of maps produced||3|
|5||Setting up inter-community groups||Number of inter-community groups set up||1|
|6||Infrastructure and facility management committee training||Number of Management Committee trainings||9|
|7||Organisation of exchange visits||Number of exchange visits||4|
|8||Organisation of technical and budgetary review workshops||Technical and budgetary review workshops of local communities||6|
|9||Wide dissemination of the technical and budgetary review workshop results||Number of Radio announcements||8|
|10||Setting up multi-stakeholder innovation platforms in the host areas||Number of innovation platforms set up||1|
|11||Organisation of cross-border consultation meetings to prevent and manage conflicts in areas that have no consultation frameworks in place||Number of meetings involving RPOs at cross-border, national and regional levels||8|
|12||Organisation of the annual high-level meetings on peaceful transhumance by the RPO consultation framework||Number of participants in cross-border meetings, framework/committee meetings and national committees and gender composition||120|
|13||Advocacy to ensure that transhumance and nutrition issues are taken into account in country strategies, investment plans and budget allocations, and in MDPs, i.e. municipal development plans.||Number of municipal, regional or national plans including development proposals for a peaceful transhumance (in connection with the achievements of Component 3)||1|
|14||Training and information of farmers and pastoralists on the texts regulating transhumance.||Number of leaders of farmers, pastoralists and transhumance stakeholders who have benefited from the training on transhumance regulations
|15||Development of a cross-border dialogue facilitation module, based on the analysis of gaps between law and practice.||Number of facilitators trained in cross-border dialogue facilitation within the RPOs (10/RPO)||5|
|16||Experimentation of a legal assistance system||Number of pastoralists and farmers who have received legal assistance (as needed)
Conflicts between farmers and herders have been recurrent since 1959, particularly in the northern and central regions of the country. Serious clashes are regularly reported, resulting in casualties and significant material damage, with subsequent social consequences.
To address this situation, which is detrimental to rural development and social cohesion, the Government decided, as part of the Government Work Programme (GWP), to take urgent measures, one of the most important of which was the preparation of a law on transhumance and livestock movements.
The draft decrees relating to Act No. 2016-413 of June 15, 2016 on transhumance and livestock movements have been prepared for submission to the Head of State for signature. They relate to the conditions for the creation and development of transhumant reception areas, the establishment and operation of private grazing sites, transhumance and livestock movement, the modalities for the implementation of agro-pastoral tandems and the conflict resolution procedure.
In addition, there is a draft decree on the creation, allocation, composition and modus operandi of the National and Regional Transhumance Committees as part of the implementation of decision A/dec-5/10/98 of 31 October 1998 on the regulation of transhumance between the Member States of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
OTHER PASTORALISM PROJECTS ON IN CÔTE D’IVOIRE
- Livestock Marketing Support Programme in West Africa (Programme d’appui à la commercialisation du bétail en Afrique de l’Ouest), Phase I (PACBAO), in progress;
- Regional Education/Training Programme for Pastoralist Populations in Cross-Border Areas (PREPP), in progress;
- Integrated and Secure Livestock and Pastoralism Project (PEPISAO);
- Regional Investment Programme for the Development of Livestock and Pastoralism in Coastal Countries (PRIDEC), in the process of finalization
TRANSHUMANCE FOCAL POINT
Dr Marcel KAGNOMOU is the transhumance focal point for PREDIP and represents the Ministry of Animal and Fishery Resources of Côte d’Ivoire. He is the Director of Animal Nutrition and Pastoral Space Management within this Ministry.